如何在说唱歌词中使用隐喻的押韵形式

作者:中文rap 2016-12-24

【HMC独家翻译】《The Rappers Handbook》中文版 第二部分 提升你的押韵-隐喻 【英文原版PDF电子书下载地址】http://pan.baidu.com/s/1mg5E7Ug 【翻译申明】 《T...

  

 

  【HMC独家翻译】《The Rapper's Handbook》中文版 第二部分 提升你的押韵-隐喻

  【英文原版PDF电子书下载地址】http://pan.baidu.com/s/1mg5E7Ug

  【翻译申明】

  《The Rapper's Handbook(说唱歌手手册)》中文版享有中华人民共和国相关著作权与美利坚合众国知识产权法,所有中英文资料仅供个人学习使用,除权利人书面同意外,任何人不得印刷出版,或做任何形式之盗版、寄存及注册,或部分﹑全部中英文资料存放。敬告各位切勿以身试法!

  【转载申明】

  凡在标题注明【HMC独家翻译】字样的图片或文字内容均属于Hip-Hop Music Club专稿,如需转载文字请注明来源【HMC独家翻译】,否则Hip-Hop Music Club将依据《信息网络传播权保护条例》维护网络知识产权。

  翻译:百合子(中国-广东) 审核/校译:斯科夫(中国-上海)

  【中文翻译】

  第二部分 提升你的押韵

  隐喻

  接下来是隐喻:对所有最出色的说唱歌手来说,这是最重要的元素之一。隐喻手法也是提升你的歌词水平最基础的方法之一。有很多说唱歌手(比如Punchline,Wordsworth,还有其他人)仅仅依靠他们的强大的隐喻技巧便为自己树立了名气。换句话说,要注意学习隐喻。

  [小贴士]

  “人们已经厌倦了只听到没有意义的强硬言论,如果你不能说些贩毒的其他方面仅仅说你个毒贩子,那人们早就听腻了。你有枪那又怎样?你贩毒,那谁不贩呢?你坐过牢?我和数以百万计的其他人都坐过。多用些创造力吧!孩子,否则你应该去治病了。这不是指一些说唱歌手对听众而言过于“街头”或者过于“野生”,而是他们确实没有才能 - 乏力的隐喻、直喻手法,就连四岁的小孩子也可以写。我经常听到‘他的Flow挺屌的’这样的话,但这不能原谅那家伙写的词确实很垃圾。”

  - Immortal Technique

  什么是隐喻?

  下面是《美国传统字典》的定义:

  Metaphor(隐喻)(名词) - 一种把一个通常指定一件事物的单词或短语去指定另一件事物的修辞手法,这样会在隐藏中形成一种比喻:比如“a sea of troubles(一片烦恼的海洋,形容困难重重。)”或者莎士比亚说的“All the world’s a stage(整个世界都是一个舞台)”。

  这是一个很棒的定义。在Hip-Hop音乐的领域,隐喻的定义就更广了。隐喻基本上来说就是在两件事物间作有创造力的比较。例如:“I’m going up faster than the price of gas(我的速度比汽油升价的速度还要快)”这就用了隐喻手法。“The price of chicken is going up faster than the price of beef(鸡肉升价的速度比牛肉升得快)”这就没有用隐喻手法(因为这没有创造性,而是明显的事实)。看看这些更令人印象深刻的例子。

  [歌曲例子]

  Like Slick Rick the Ruler

  I’m cooler than a ice brick,

  got soul like those afro picks, with the black fist,

  and leave a crowd dripping like John the Baptist

  - Black Thought on “Mellow My Man”

  Me without a mic is like a beat without a snare...

  I’m sweet like licorice, dangerous like syphilis

  - Lauryn Hill on “How Many Mics”

  My rhymes are like shot clocks,

  interstate cops and blood clots,

  my point is… your flow gets stopped

  -Talib Kweli on “Hater Players

  难道这些真是直喻吗?

  有些人总是区分隐喻和直喻。你的英语老师应该教过你,直喻会有“like(像)”或者“as(正如)”这样的词汇,而隐喻是没有的。所以这些歌曲的例子实际上是直喻吗?嗯,从语言技巧上讲,这确实是直喻。但我们应该给隐喻更广的定义,包括直喻、隐喻还有其他富有创造力的比喻手法。它们不仅是很相近的写词技术,而且你运用它们写词时,写法是大多是完全一样的。就像Common在他的歌《1-9-9-9》里说的一样:

  Hold the mic like a memory

  (保留这个麦克风就像一个储存器)

  Ni**as say I’m nice with metaphors

  (兄弟们说我用的隐喻很精彩)

  but these are similes

  (但是这些都是直喻)

  Common说得对,它们都是直喻。只不过正如说唱圈里的大多数说唱歌手想的一样,我们把直喻手法统称是为了让隐喻更简单。

  两种隐喻手法

  我们将隐喻手法分为两类,然后分别详细讲解。第一种是简单的隐喻。另一种是涉及了双关语的隐喻。后者更令人印象深刻。事实上,在Hip-Hop的历史中最令人印象深刻的Lines,几乎都是那些运用了涉及双关语的隐喻手法的说唱歌手创造的。但让我们还是从最基本的开始吧。

  简单的隐喻手法

  先说重要的:在你想创作一个隐喻的句子之前,你应该准备好你要说的内容。你不可能凭空捏造一个隐喻的句子。所以第一件要做的事就是想好你要表达的基本思路:你想说的最简单的事情是什么?它可能是任何的事情:

  I spit rhymes

  (我押韵地说着)

  He’s not smart

  (他不聪明)

  She looks fly

  (她看起来很兴奋)

  We’re hungry

  (我们饿了)

  这些都可以拿来写隐喻,但这里我只会挑选其中之一举例。那我们就拿“I spit rhymes(我押韵地说着)”举例吧。现在想一想世界上有什么东西是会“spit rhymes(押韵地说着)”的,这可能是很简单的:

  A rapper at a show

  (一个在表演的说唱歌手)

  A slam poet

  (一位在朗诵的诗人)

  A nursery rhyme

  (一首童谣)

  A limerick

  (一首打油诗)

  现在我们把首先想好的事物和第二步联想出的事物拼凑起来,我们会想出这个句子:

  I spit rhymes like a rapper at a show

  (我像一个在表演的说唱歌手那样押韵地说着)

  这是一个隐喻句,但这是挺糟糕的隐喻。太简单太无聊了。接下来要做的就是把它变得生动有趣。尝试去想一些“rapper at a show(表演中的说唱歌手)”的特例,例如:

  Big Boi at Stankonia (the name of his studio)

  (Big Boi在Stankonia)(他的工作室的名字)

  Jay-Z at the Garden (Madison Square Garden)

  (Jay-Z在这个花园)(麦迪逊广场花园)

  T.I. at the Apollo

  (T.I.在阿波罗广场)

  我们不妨用最后一个:

  I spit rhymes like T.I. at the Apollo

  (我像T.I.在阿波罗广场表演一样押韵地说着)

  那样你的Line就更有内容了。虽然这不是让人发出“oh damn,that was amazing(哦,该死的,这真是惊人的)”赞口不绝的Line,但这已经是个很好的、简单的隐喻。

  再举一个例子:

  我们可以不使用别的隐喻手法去写完你的歌词,但是为什么不让听众们一直保持着高度兴奋?我们可以承接上一句的内容去写出下一句歌词。让我们来想想与Apollo(阿波罗)押韵的单词:

  Follow

  (跟随)

  Hollow

  (山谷)

  Swallow

  (燕子)

  Wallow

  (打滚)

  Kahlo *

  *Freda Kahlo was a painter

  (*Freda Kahlo是一个画家)

  那我们就选Kahlo吧,因为它够特别。我们可以化腐朽为神奇,引用这个人的典故,去创造一个让观众惊讶得措手不及的神奇的Line。Freda Kahlo是一位出名的墨西哥画家,由于她是女同性恋者,我们可以引用这件事来创作:

  I paint a picture of a Mexican like Freda Kahlo,

  or

  I like kissing women like Freda Kahlo

  (我像Freda Kahlo那样画着墨西哥风格,

  或者

  我喜欢像Freda Kahlo那样亲吻女人)

  这两个都是隐喻并且内容都不错,但我还是要想些更好的。于是我上网搜索Freda Kahlo,然后我找到了这张照片(译者注:一张她的自画像,在原版电子书里面有显示。):

  我记得Freda Kahlo有一条粗粗的一字眉(她的眉毛就是直接连接在她的额头上的),于是我可以运用这个事实来作词:

  You’ve got a bigger unibrow than Freda Kahlo

  (你皱起眉头,眉毛比Freda Kahlo还要粗)

  我准备运用这个事实,因为这个做法很聪明,我从来没有见过有说唱歌手拿一字眉来写词,所以我知道我这样做会让人们抓狂的。现在我把两句话凑起来:

  I spit rhymes like T.I. at the Apollo,

  (我像T.I.在阿波罗广场表演一样押韵地说着,)

  you’ve got a bigger unibrow than Freda Kahlo

  (你皱起眉头,眉毛比Freda Kahlo还要粗)

  这里虽然没有双关语,但已经是个货真价实的隐喻手法。我可以把这个隐喻的句子存档在我的脑中,以防我万一在Battle中碰到一个有一字眉的对手,我便能马上拿出来对付他。

  [歌曲例子]

  My style of rhyming is ancient like Aztecs and

  Mayans, because I recognize it’s all about timing

  - Canibus, “100 Bars”

  Cause, hey I stay flagrant with lyrics nastier than Tammy Faye bathing,

  keep comp shook like charter planes when it’s raining

  - Tonedeff, “Heavyweights”

  I take one of your chicks straight from under your armpit,

  the black Brad Pitt, I mack ‘til six in the AM

  - Jay-Z, Punjabi MC “Beware of the Boys”

  在上面的三个歌曲例子中,说唱歌手们都把隐喻与其他技巧融合了:比如中间韵、多重押韵和一些牛逼的Flow。但他们的隐喻毫不含糊,每个隐喻本身已经拥有了强大的说服力。

  Canibus走的是Old school的风格,他引用了阿兹特克人和玛雅人的典故。但也解释了他口中“古老”的意思: 他想像老派的说唱歌手那样保持简单的风格,而老派的说唱歌手在时间上而言就是“古老”的。

  Tonedeff,这是一位口速像Twista那样快的牛逼地下说唱歌手,在一个Bar里运用了两个隐喻,一个接着一个。 单词“comp”是“competition”的缩写。

  Jay-Z的隐喻是最简单的 (戏称自己为“black Brad Pitt(黑皮肤的布拉德皮特)”),这是他一直保持着的浅显易懂也从不拖泥带水的说唱风格。从某种程度上讲,他的隐喻其实是最牛逼的。因为当脑中的画面是“black Brad Pitt(黑皮肤的布拉德皮特)”时,每个听众都会惊呆了。

  带有双关语的隐喻

  你知道这种Line听了后会让你下巴合不起来吗?这种会让你倒退歌曲去重复听那句,直到你弄懂了其中错综复杂的含义。能有这种效果的Line八九成都是用了包含了双关语的隐喻手法。这好像是天才写手的超级二连击爆点,保证可以让听众们尖叫。这个技术创作了在Hip-Hop史上一些最惊人又令人难忘的Line。

  这是Kanye West在“Back Like That Remix”写下的两句:

  We hit the spot to chill where the food get grilled

  She order the Kobe beef like Shaquille O’Neal

  (她像奥尼尔不爽科比一样找来仇恨 - 原意她像奥尼尔那样点了份神户牛扒)

  Kanye不仅玩转了Beef的两个不同含义(其一是牛肉,其二是人与人之间的对骂),还把Kobe这个单词运用了(Kobe Beef指的是一种来自日本神户的嫩牛扒,同时也是在湖人时与奥尼尔闹矛盾的球星科比)。在这样做的时候,Kanye创作了一个运用了带有双关语的暗喻手法的独一无二的Line。

  如何创作带有双关语的隐喻

  创作这些Line的诀窍其实就是把你所学的隐喻手法和你所学的双关语结合起来。就从简单的陈述开始吧。为了方便点,我们可以从成语列表(查看Appendix I)里选择一个来使用。例如:

  I’ll flip you the bird

  “flip the bird”其实表达的意思是对某个人竖起你的中指。现在为了创作双关语,我们需要去注意它字面上的意思“flipping birds(对你翻转一只鸟)”。所以现在我们要思绪爆发去想一些与“flip birds(翻转一只鸟)”有关的事物:

  Someone cooking chicken on a barbeque

  (有人在烧烤架上烤着烧鸡)

  Someone wrestling pigeons

  (有人在与鸽子摔跤)

  A seagull who’s an acrobat

  (一只海鸥是一个杂技演员)

  现在我只选择其中一个,用它拼凑在我原本陈述的成语后面,在这之间加上“like(就像)”这样的关系词。我会重复地仔细修改,再调解这句话的Flow到顺畅并且让它显得更牛逼。我甚至可以用上面例子中的两个写在一句完整的话里。比如这样:

  I’ll flip you the bird like I’m barbequing chicken,

  (我会向你竖中指就像我在烧烤架上烤着烧鸡 - 原意是我会对你翻转一只鸟就像我在烤鸡)

  Or like Hulk Hogan wrestling pigeons, so quit snitchin’

  (或者像摔跤手胡克霍根那样摔着一只鸽子,所以放弃告密吧)

  所有做法都是这样子的。

  [歌曲例子]

  Lyrically deep like the teachings of Confucius

  spit ridiculous sh**, like a nipple-less tit - you’re useless

  but hang around anyway hoping to get felt

  (你是没用的装饰品,到处都挂不紧,你还想着被粘起来 - 原意是你这没用的家伙,呆在那还想感受我那*接下文“极具腐蚀性的歌词”*)

  lyrically acidic when I spit it, making mics melt

  I should change my name to Phillip

  (我应该改名叫菲利普螺丝刀)

  ‘cause I’m screwing you up

  (因为我狠狠地教训了你 - 原意我把你拧紧了)

  - Substantial, “Quotables”

  这个例子取自Substantial在歌曲“Quotables”里的表现,歌词里充满了隐喻以及包含了双关语的隐喻。在这些Line里,他灵活地玩转了“hang”,“felt”还有“screw”这几个拥有多个意思的词语。他在别的地方也运用了一些简单的隐喻,把这几个Line的歌词总体的复杂性提升了不少。

  [练习这个]

  创作一些包含以及不包含双关语的隐喻句。然后看看你写出来的句子中哪些是你最喜欢的呢?分析为什么它们会比其他的句子突出。你可以把这些最喜欢的句子运用到你的Verse里让你的Verse变得牛逼。

  【英语原文】

  Part Two - Elevating Your Rhymes

  Metaphors

  Time for metaphors: one of the most important elements for all the best rappers. Metaphors are also one of the most basic things you can use to elevate your rhymes. There are whole rappers (Punchline,Wordsworth, and others) who made a name for themselves almost exclusively on the strength of their metaphors. In other words, pay attention to this one.

  [droppin’knowledge]

  “People are tired of only hearing the tough talk with no meaning, of hearing that you’re a drug dealer unless you explain some other dimension of it. So what you got guns? You sold drugs, who hasn’t? You did time? Me and few million other people have too… Make it creative or get a therapist. It’s not that rappers are too‘street’ or ‘too raw’ for the audience, they just aren’t talented—weak metaphors,similes that a four-year-old could come up with. I always hear “he got a hot flow.”That doesn’t excuse son’s lyrics from being trash.”

  - Immortal Technique

  What is a metaphor?

  Here’s how the American Heritage Dictionary defines it:

  Metaphor (noun) - A figure of speech in which a word or phrase that ordinarily designates one thing is used to designate another, thus making an implicit comparison, as in “a sea of troubles” or“All the world’s a stage” (Shakespeare).

  That’s a good definition. In hip-hop, that definition gets even broader. A metaphor is basically a creative comparison between two things. For example: “I’m going up faster than the price of gas” is considered a metaphor. “The price of chicken is going up faster than the price of beef” is not a metaphor (because it isn’t creative; it’s obvious). Take a look at these much more impressive examples.

  [Pro Examples]

  Like Slick Rick the Ruler

  I’m cooler than a ice brick,

  got soul like those afro picks, with the black fist,

  and leave a crowd dripping like John the Baptist

  - Black Thought on “Mellow My Man”

  Me without a mic is like a beat without a snare...

  I’m sweet like licorice, dangerous like syphilis

  - Lauryn Hill on “How Many Mics”

  My rhymes are like shot clocks,

  interstate cops and blood clots,

  my point is… your flow gets stopped

  -Talib Kweli on “Hater Players

  Aren’t Those Really Similes?

  Some people differentiate between similes and metaphors. You’re English teacher probably told you that a simile is a comparison that uses the word “like”or “as” and a metaphor is a comparison that doesn’t.So those pro examples are actually similes? Well,technically they are. But we’re going to use the term‘metaphor’ to mean a larger category that includes metaphors, similies and other creative comparisons.Not only are they very similar techniques, but the way that you write them is almost exactly the same. Like Common says on that one song “1-9-9-9”:

  Hold the mic like a memory

  Ni**as say I’m nice with metaphors

  but these are similes

  Common’s right. They are similes. But like most people in the rap world, we’re going to call them metaphors to keep it simple.

  Two Kinds of Metaphors

  We’re going to divide metaphors in two categories and tackle each one separately. First there are simple metaphors. And then there are metaphors that involve wordplay. The latter are much more impressive. In fact the most impressive lines in the history of hip-hop belong to rappers who created metaphors with wordplay. But let’s start with the basics.

  Simple Metaphors

  First things first: you want to create a metaphor,you’ve got to have something to say. You can’t make

  a metaphor out of thin air. So first think of the basic idea that you want to get across: what’s the simplest thing you want to say? It could be almost anything:

  I spit rhymes

  He’s not smart

  She looks fly

  We’re hungry

  All of these work, but we’ll take just one for an example.Let’s say we start with “I spit rhymes.” Now think of some other things in the world that spit rhymes. It could be really simple:

  A rapper at a show

  A slam poet

  A nursery rhyme

  A limerick

  Now we just put the first together with something from the second. We get:

  I spit rhymes like a rapper at a show

  That’s a metaphor, but it’s a pretty bad metaphor. It’s simple and boring. The next step is to make it more specific and interesting. Think of a specific example of the “rapper at a show.” For example:

  Big Boi at Stankonia (the name of his studio)

  Jay-Z at the Garden (Madison Square Garden)

  T.I. at the Apollo

  Let’s take the last one:

  I spit rhymes like T.I. at the Apollo

  That’s a much more solid line. It’s not “oh damn,that was amazing,” but it’s solid. It’s a good, simple metaphor.

  Another Example:

  We could complete the rhyme without using another metaphor. But why not put in one more just to keep the crowd on their feet? To complete the rhyme and write the next line, we’ll work backwards. We’ll think of all the words that rhyme with “Apollo”:

  Follow

  Hollow

  Swallow

  Wallow

  Kahlo *

  *Freda Kahlo was a painter

  I’m going to use Kahlo, because it’s very specific, so we can make a dope line with an unlikely reference that will catch people off guard. Now Freda Kahlo was a famous Mexican painter who was a lesbian. So I can play around with those facts:

  I paint a picture of a Mexican like Freda Kahlo,

  or

  I like kissing women like Freda Kahlo

  Both of those are metaphors and they work, but I want something even better. So I go online and look up Freda Kahlo and I find this picture:

  And I remember that Freda Kahlo had a huge unibrow(her eyebrows were connected in the middle of her face), so I can play off that fact.

  You’ve got a bigger unibrow than Freda Kahlo

  I’m going to choose that one because it’s smart, clever and I’ve never heard a rapper reference a unibrow before, so I know it’s going to make the crowd go wild.Now we put them together:

  I spit rhymes like T.I. at the Apollo,

  you’ve got a bigger unibrow than Freda Kahlo

  There’s no wordplay there, but it’s some solid use of metaphors. I can file that rhyme away in the back of my mind in case I ever have to battle someone with a unibrow.

  [Pro Examples]

  My style of rhyming is ancient like Aztecs and

  Mayans, because I recognize it’s all about timing

  - Canibus, “100 Bars”

  Cause, hey I stay flagrant with lyrics nastier than Tammy Faye bathing,

  keep comp shook like charter planes when it’s raining

  - Tonedeff, “Heavyweights”

  I take one of your chicks straight from under your armpit,

  the black Brad Pitt, I mack ‘til six in the AM

  - Jay-Z, Punjabi MC “Beware of the Boys”

  In all three of the pro examples, the rappers combine metaphors with other things: in-rhyme, multies and some nasty flow. But the metaphors on their own are strong.

  Canibus goes way old school with a dope reference to Aztecs and Mayans, but also explains what he means by ‘ancient’: he is keeping it simple like the old school rappers, ‘cause it’s all about timing.

  Tonedeff, a sick underground emcee who spits as fast as Twista, puts two metaphors in his bar, one after the other. The word ‘comp’ is just short for ‘competition.’

  Jay-Z’s metaphor is the simplest (he’s the “black Brad Pitt”), but that keeps with his easy-going style where nothing is over-written. In one sense, his metaphor might be the strongest because the image of Brad Pitt as a black man stops every listener in his tracks.

  Metaphors with Wordplay

  You know those lines that make your jaw drop? Those lines that are so smart you’ve got to rewind the track and listen to them again just to understand the intricacies? Most of those lines feature metaphors that involve wordplay. It’s kind of like the one-two punch of a gifted lyricist, guaranteed to make the crowd scream.This technique creates some of the most amazing and memorable lines in hip-hop.

  Here’s Kanye West on “Back Like That Remix”:

  We hit the spot to chill where the food get grilled

  She order the Kobe beef like Shaquille O’Neal

  Kanye plays not only with the definition of beef (the meat from a cow and a feud between people) but also of the word Kobe (Kobe beef is especially tender beef from Kobe, Japan, while Kobe Bryant is the famous Lakers player who didn’t get along with Shaq when Shaq was with the Lakers). In doing so, Kanye creates a metaphor with wordplay and a unique line.

  How to Write Metaphors with Wordplay

  The trick to creating these lines is really just to combine what you learned from the lesson on metaphors with what you learned from the lesson on wordplay. Start out with a simple statement. We can make it easy by choosing a phrase from the list of idioms (see Appendix I). For example:

  I’ll flip you the bird

  The expression “flip the bird” means sticking up your middle finger at someone. Now in order to create wordplay we just have to focus on the literal meaning of ‘flipping birds’. So now we brainstorm a list of things that also ‘flip birds’:

  Someone cooking chicken on a barbeque

  Someone wrestling pigeons

  A seagull who’s an acrobat

  Now I just choose one and slip it after my original statement, adding the word “like” in between. I’ll rework it a little to fit the flow and make it tigher. I can even use two of them in a row like this:

  I’ll flip you the bird like I’m barbequing chicken,

  Or like Hulk Hogan wrestling pigeons, so quit snitchin’

  That’s all there is to it.

  [Pro Example]

  Lyrically deep like the teachings of Confucius

  spit ridiculous sh**, like a nipple-less tit - you’re useless

  but hang around anyway hoping to get felt

  lyrically acidic when I spit it, making mics melt

  I should change my name to Phillip

  ‘cause I’m screwing you up

  - Substantial, “Quotables”

  This example from Substantial on the track “Quotables”is full of metaphors and metaphors with wordplay. In these lines, he deftly plays with the meaning of the words “hang,” “felt,” and “screw,” which all have more than one meaning. He also puts in simple metaphors to add to the overall complexity of the lines.

  [Practice This]

  Create some metaphors with and without wordplay. Which are your favorites? Analyze why some of them are stronger than others. Combine your favorites in a dope verse.

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