如何在说唱中提升歌词押韵的双关语

作者:中文rap 2016-12-24

【HMC独家翻译】《The Rappers Handbook》中文版 第二部分 提升你的押韵-双关语 【英文原版PDF电子书下载地址】http://pan.baidu.com/s/1mg5E7Ug 【翻译申明】 ...

  

 

  【HMC独家翻译】《The Rapper's Handbook》中文版 第二部分 提升你的押韵-双关语

  【英文原版PDF电子书下载地址】http://pan.baidu.com/s/1mg5E7Ug

  【翻译申明】

  《The Rapper's Handbook(说唱歌手手册)》中文版享有中华人民共和国相关著作权与美利坚合众国知识产权法,所有中英文资料仅供个人学习使用,除权利人书面同意外,任何人不得印刷出版,或做任何形式之盗版、寄存及注册,或部分﹑全部中英文资料存放。敬告各位切勿以身试法!

  【转载申明】

  凡在标题注明【HMC独家翻译】字样的图片或文字内容均属于Hip-Hop Music Club专稿,如需转载文字请注明来源【HMC独家翻译】,否则Hip-Hop Music Club将依据《信息网络传播权保护条例》维护网络知识产权。

  翻译:百合子(中国-广东) 审核/校译:斯科夫(中国-上海)

  【中文翻译】

  第二部分 提升你的押韵

  双关语

  从莎士比亚到Atmosphere(一个Hip-Hop乐团),双关语一直都在被大家使用。这让观众们发出“ooh”和“ahh”那样的赞叹。最好的说唱歌手会结合双关语和隐喻去创造一些惊人的Lines,人们会记住这些Lines,然后告诉他们的后代。

  [歌曲例子]

  What you get on, it’s fam you can’t trust,

  Words and Punch make rappers March like the third month

  (March指“行走”,也是“三月”的意思)

  - Punchline,“Twice Inna Lifetime”

  双关语是什么?

  在说唱中的双关语,指的是在Line中的同一个词的两个或好几个不同的意义在上下文中的合理运用。单纯从字面上理解,“Wordplay”这个词就是玩弄词汇的意义。

  英语(和大多数语言)中的词汇可以拥有多种意义,这为双关语提供了可能性。单词可以拥有多种定义:字典里的定义,科学上的定义,通俗白话中的定义还有俚语里的定义。一个技巧性的说唱歌手可以灵活运用一个词的多种意思,来创作一些可以让听众们不可思议的惊人的Line。这也从另一点证明了积累大量的词汇对歌词写作真的有很大帮助。

  在个章节开头运用的例子中,Punchline运用了“March”这个单词的两个意思,一个是“march”(意思是“行军”),另一个是“March”(在二月之后的月份)。在这样做的时候,他创作出了一个让你突然惊呆的Line,因为这实在太巧妙了!你可以发现很多双关语的实例中也涉及了隐喻手法。这是来自同一首歌的另一个例子,这是Wordsworth运用了“Stereotype”的意义:

  Revive or ruin, my theories of mics,

  Sony or Aiwa, black or white, I fit in all stereotypes

  (“Stereotype”原意指的是模具的版型,这里的意思是:1.回应上一句:Punchline的风格多样 2.对应本句:Punchline的歌被装进了各种播放器,受到各种人群的青睐,不仅用了双关语也用了隐喻手法。)

  创作双关语

  你应该怎样写出这样牛逼的Line?遵循这些步骤,但不要为了寻找灵感而借用毒品(诸如大麻之类的)。

  步骤1.注意到新单词

  在你的生活中注意到单词和它们的含义。当你阅读到或听到一个不懂的单词时,把它们记录下来,然后查阅到它们的所有意思。

  步骤2.寻找多种定义

  当你查阅一个单词时,不要只看它在词典里的第一个定义,而是要查阅所有定义。这是非常重要的一点,因为双关语就是建立在混合使用词汇的多种意义的基础上的。

  步骤3.思考有关你已经知道的词汇

  做这个练习:无论你在哪里,观察你的周围,然后列举你所看到的东西。你可以写在纸上也可以在脑中思考。接下来你要做的就是仔细想想每一件物品的词语是否有着另外的意思。如果有的话,把它们记下来。

  举个例子,假设我在公交车上。这是我的列表,在每件物品后面我列举了一些可行的双关语。

  Bus - Bus不仅是公交车的意思,这也是Jerome Bettis的绰号,他是匹兹堡钢人队的跑锋。于是我可以写:A busboy busses tables; he clears them。还有Bus’ (bust的缩写) 可以意味着很多东西:重新开始,射杀,押韵,爆发等。

  Driver - Driver不仅是司机的意思,也是你在打高尔夫时击球进洞用的球杆。同时“Driver”听起来与“Drive her(逼迫她)”同音。

  Seat - 本意为座位。[现在我想不出别的意思,于是我翻阅字典后学会了这些含义:]Seat可以指你的“buttocks(臀部)”(这是字典说的),也可以指委员会或董事会的立场。国会的成员也照样可以是Seat。

  我还可以继续举例,但我说到这里其实已经够了。总之,训练自己往这个方向思考得越多,你收获的双重含义的词汇就越多。

  步骤4.使用双重含义创作一个Line

  找出一个你已经观察到的拥有双重含义的单词,尝试运用它们去创作一些Lines。这是我用上面举例的三个单词写出的内容。这些Line不相互押韵,它们可以分别运用到不同的地方里去。

  I’m a driver like what Tiger Woods holding,

  I used to be a busboy like Jerome Bettis’ son,

  Missed the bus, like a senator I’m running for a seat.

  这里面没有一个Line会让你赞叹得突然惊呆。如果我要写歌我也不会用这样的句子。但我会不断用随机的三个单词做练习。正如其他东西一样,你将会创作出大量糟糕又没有用处的双关语Line,直到你可以创作出你喜欢的双关语押韵。

  步骤5.学习俚语

  你还可以根据一个俚语单词,看看不同的含义。很多俚语术语不仅拥有词典上的定义还有它们的街头定义:

  Word – slang def / dictionary def

  (词语 – 俚语含义/词典含义)

  Ice – diamonds / frozen water

  (Ice – 钻石/冻结的水)

  Cheddar – money / cheese

  (Cheddar – 钱/奶酪)

  Sick– good / physically ill

  (Sick – 牛逼/生理上的病态)

  Dope – good / somebody stupid / drugs

  (Dope – 牛逼/愚蠢的人或毒品)

  然后可以运用这些单词的不同含义来写Lines:

  I’ve got more cheddar than a Wisconsin farmer

  (我比威斯康星州的农场主赚得更多钱,其原意是农场奶牛产奶制出的奶酪)

  Rhymes sicker than lyme disease and gangrene

  (我的押韵比莱姆关节炎和坏疽更加牛逼,其原意是病得更重)

  - Pharoah Monch, “Right Here”

  I’m diarrhea ni**a, you ain’t ready for this sh**

  (我正在腹泻,而你没有准备好迎接我的狠货,shit的原意是腹泻拉出的屎)

  - Little Brother, “Flash and Flare”

  步骤6.使用成语

  你还可以通过研究成语然后去创作双关语。成语在语言中的意思总是不同于它字面上的意思。例如,“piece of cake(小菜一碟)”字面上指的是一块蛋糕,它的寓意则是简单的事情。成语是学习双关语的一个很好的起点,因为它们本身就固有双重意义。这个来自Little Brother的说唱歌手Legacy使用成语“hold my own(凡事靠自己)”(意义是变得像队伍中的任何人一样强)去说唱:“I hold my own like masturbation(我凡事靠自己就像自慰,原意是:我像打飞机一样握着我自己的鸡巴).”明白了吗?

  翻到书本的后面找到Appendix I—Idioms,那里列举了一长串成语,可以供你使用去创作双关语。

  步骤7.把以上6个步骤融合到一起

  把以上6个步骤融合到一起来创作一些Lines:

  This is off the top like the foamy head on your beer,

  (这是随便脱口而出的押韵就像你打开啤酒就会有泡沫涌出, - “off the top”原意为冒出顶部。)

  my metaphors are over your head like your wack ass hair,

  (我的隐喻牛逼得你无法忍受,就像你无法忍受你那糟糕的发型,- “over your head”字面上理解是“在你的头上”,与发型形成呼应。)

  stand clear like Casper the ghost waiting in line,

  (我态度明确就像鬼马小精灵中的几只幽灵总是排成一列,- “stand clear”原意为“站稳在一个地方”,这里是“态度明确”的意思。)

  like Geoffrey Rush or shoe polish, dawg, I’m ready to Shine

  (像Geoffrey Rush或者鞋油那样,狗日的,我已经准备好了制造观众的骚动,- “Shine”原意是闪耀,还有俚语“制造骚乱”的意思,在这里两个含义都行得通。)

  在上面的Lines中,每个Line我都运用了词语的不同意思,创作了四个包含双关语的隐喻句。这里列举另一个例子,名字叫Session的地下说唱歌手在Tonedeff的“Quotables”中表现的双关语。他运用了“bug”和“spotted”的双重含义。你通常会相信最好的地下说唱歌手们可以创造出高质量的双关语和隐喻,而Session更是毋庸置疑。

  [歌曲例子]

  Puff an L and bug, cause I won’t be swatted

  (抽上一公升然后溜走,但我不绝会被拍死 - “bug”原意为虫子,俚语中的意思是像虫子一样溜走,与后面“我不会绝被拍死”形成呼应)

  I can’t be seen -

  I’ll be a Dalmatian and still won’t be spotted

  (我不会被发现,我会变成一只斑点狗但依旧不会被发现 - “spotted”原意为有斑点的,与前面斑点狗形成呼应,俚语“spot”有发现的意思)

  - Session, “Quotables”

  [练习这个]

  在Appendix I中的成语列表中使用一些成语去创作一些双关语。你的Line应该包含了成语的寓意和它字面上的意思。然后再写出与你的双关语形成配合的韵脚。

  在网络上

  很多网络MC在Flocab Rhyme Boards网站上喜欢把他们的双关语打成大写字母去写出他们的Line,还有些人是用下划线去划出双关语或者用奇怪的符号去标出双关语。像这样的网络MC:

  You should put Lipstick~On~Your~Head

  and Make~Up~Your~Mind

  很明显,你是否要这样做取决于你自己。在有利方面提醒了大家这是你的双关语。但负面的作用也不可忽视,这会让你的Line读起来更加困难。

  【英语原文】

  Part Two - Elevating Your Rhymes

  Wordplay

  Wordplay has been used by everybody from Shakespeare to Atmosphere to make audiences ooh and ahh. The best rappers combine wordplay and metaphors to create amazing lines that people remember and tell their grandkids about.

  [Pro Example]

  What you get on, it’s fam you can’t trust,

  Words and Punch make rappers March like the third month

  - Punchline,“Twice Inna Lifetime”

  What is Wordplay?

  An instance of wordplay in rap is when words signify two or more different things that make sense in the context of the line. Wordplay is literally just playing with the meanings of words.

  This is made possible by the fact that words in the English language (and most languages) can have multiple meanings. Words can have multiple dictionary definitions, scientific definitions, colloquial definitions and slang definitions. The skilled rapper can bounce between these meanings to create a line that knocks a crowd off their feet. This is another way in which having a big vocabulary is a real benefit to your rhyme-writing.

  In the example that opened this chapter, Punchline plays on the two definitions of the word “march”(meaning ‘to walk’) and “March” (‘the month after February’). In doing so, he creates a line that stops you in your tracks, because it’s so damn clever. You’ll notice that most instances of wordplay in rap involve metaphors as well. Here’s another example from the same song. This is Wordsworth playing with the meaning of “stereotype”:

  Revive or ruin, my theories of mics,

  Sony or Aiwa, black or white, I fit in all stereotypes

  Creating Wordplay

  How are you supposed to write lines like that? Follow these steps and don’t do too many drugs.

  Step 1. Pay Attention to New Words

  Pay attention to words and their meanings in your life.When you read or hear words that you don’t know,write them down and then look up their definition.

  Step 2. Look for Multiple Definitions

  When you do look up a word, don’t just read the first definition in the dictionary, read all the definitions.This is crucial because wordplay is based on messing around with multiple definitions.

  Step 3. Think About Words You Already Know

  Do this exercise: look around you wherever you are and make a list of the things you see. You could write it down, or do it in your head. Now go through each object and try to think if there are alternate meanings for that word. If there are, take note of them.

  For example, say I’m on the bus. This is my list, with possible wordplay listed after each one:

  Bus – a bus is a big vehicle for moving people. It’s also the nickname of Jerome Bettis, the former running back for the Pittsburgh Steelers. A busboy busses tables; he clears them. Bus’ (short for bust) can mean a lot of things: bust off, shoot,rhyme, break out.

  Driver – a driver is a person who is steering a car or bus. A driver is also the club you use in golf to hit the ball off the tee. Driver also sound like“drive her.”

  Seat – a place where you sit. [Now I couldn’t think of any for ‘seat,’ so I went to the dictionary, and this is what I got:] A seat can be your “buttocks”(that’s what the dictionary says). A seat can also be a position on a board of trustees or committee.A member of congress also runs for a seat.

  I could keep going, but I’ll stop there. In general, the more you train yourself to think this way, the more easily these double-meanings will come to you.

  Step 4. Create a Line Using Double-Meanings

  Take a double meaning that you’ve observed and try to craft some lines out of it. Here’s what I can do with the three above. These lines don’t rhyme together, they would be used apart:

  I’m a driver like what Tiger Woods holding,

  I used to be a busboy like Jerome Bettis’ son,

  Missed the bus, like a senator I’m running for a seat.

  None of those are the kind of wordplay that would make you stop in your tracks. If I was writing a song I probably wouldn’t use any of those. But I did that with three random words. As with everything, you’re going to create a lot of bad, unusable lines before you find the rhymes you like.

  Step 5. Study Slang

  You can also start with a slang word and look at the different meanings. A lot of slang terms have dictionary definitions along with their street definitions:

  Word – slang def / dictionary def

  Ice – diamonds / frozen water

  Cheddar – money / cheese

  Sick– good / physically ill

  Dope – good / somebody stupid / drugs

  Then take these and write lines playing on the different meanings:

  I’ve got more cheddar than a Wisconsin farmer

  Rhymes sicker than lyme disease and gangrene

  - Pharoah Monch, “Right Here”

  I’m diarrhea ni**a, you ain’t ready for this sh**

  - Little Brother, “Flash and Flare”

  Step 6. Use Idioms

  You can also create wordplay by studying idioms.Idioms are phrases in a language that have a meaning other than what they say literally. For example,“piece of cake” means both literally a piece of cake and something that’s easy. Idioms are a great place to start for wordplay because they inherently have double meaning. The rapper Legacy from Little Brother uses the idiom “hold my own” (meaning to be as strong as anyone else on a team) and raps: “I hold my own like masturbation.” Get the idea?

  Flip to the back of the book to Appendix I – Idioms for a long list of idioms that you can use to create wordplay.

  Step 7. Put It All Together

  Then just put it all together to write some lines:

  This is off the top like the foamy head on your beer,

  my metaphors are over your head like your wack ass hair,

  stand clear like Casper the ghost waiting in line,

  like Geoffrey Rush or shoe polish, dawg, I’m ready to Shine

  In the above lines, I play with the meanings of words in each line, creating four different metaphors with wordplay. Here’s another example from the underground rapper Session, on Tonedeff’s “Quotables.” He plays with the double meanings of “bug” and “spotted.” You can usually count on the best underground rappers to drop some high quality wordplay and metaphors, and Session is no exception.

  [Pro Example]

  Puff an L and bug, cause I won’t be swatted

  I can’t be seen -

  I’ll be a Dalmatian and still won’t be spotted

  - Session, “Quotables”

  [Practice This]

  Use the idiom list in Appendix I to create some wordplay.Your line should play with the idiomatic definition of the phrase and its literal definition. Then write some rhymes that feature your wordplay.

  On the Net

  A lot of netcees on the Flocab Rhyme Boards like to write out their lines by capitalizing their wordplay,italicizing it or adding weird symbols. Like this netcee:

  You should put Lipstick~On~Your~Head

  and Make~Up~Your~Mind

  Whether you want to do this is obviously up to you.On the plus side it alerts everyone to your wordplay.On the down side, it can make it harder to read the line straight through.

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